DESIGN AND INNOVATION FOR MARKET APPEAL,
exhibit illustrates the inventiveness of cigarette makers
and marketers through the 20th century. Most items
come from the United States because this is the home
of the collection from which this exhibit is drawn.
An understanding of design and innovation for these
addictive products is essential for public health policy
makers. The items on exhibit are presented as
a primer for those interested in tobacco product regulation
and the regulation of tobacco product marketing.
Smooky (Takara). These hip cigarette packs dance in
response to sound. Source: Duty Free Shop, Japan
Air Terminal, Narita Airport, August 9, 1991.
was chewed, snuffed or puffed (but not inhaled) before
flu cured tobacco was developed in North Carolina in
the mid-19th century.
Smoking Tobacco & Duke's Mixture. Fine cut tobacco
(Roll your own, RYO). Two classic brands of cigarette
tobacco which originated in the 1860s-70s in Durham, NC.
Flu cured tobacco made the smoke from these cigarettes mild,
that is, easy to inhale. These examples date from
after 1911, following the breakup of the American Tobacco
cards with collectable designs and pictures, usually in
series, were introduced in the 1870s as a marketing device.
Coupons redeemable for trinkets advertised with tobacco
packets and through catalogs were another major marketing
device. On display are some silks from early
in the century, Tareyton cards featuring the cartoon character
Henry dating from the 1930s, and Raleigh coupons (Brown
& Williamson) probably from the 1960s. Brown &
Williamson is the only major cigarette manufacturer which
continues an unbroken tradition of coupons with some of
Albert tobacco. In 1907,
R. J. Reynolds introduced its first smoking tobacco.
The "National Joy Smoke" demonstrated Reynolds'
skill in identifying a potential market and selling to it.
Cigarette manufacture followed in 1913 with Reyno, Red Kamel,
CLASSIC AMERICAN BLEND CIGARETTE
Caporal and Murad were among the best selling brands in
the first decades of the century. A pack of Sweet
Caporal from 1946 is on display.
Reynolds introduced the modern American Cigarette with Camel
in 1913. Combining a unique blend (flu cured, burley,
Turkish and Maryland tobaccos) with a mass media campaign
instead of cards and coupons, the brand sold for 10 cents
instead of 15 cents for a pack of 20. The 70 mm unfiltered
Camel packs sold in the U. S. still carry the original legend
on the back: "Don't look for premiums or coupons,
as the cost of the tobaccos blended in CAMEL Cigarettes
prohibits the use of them." The Camel packs on
display date from 1945 (wartime paper) and from 1993.
was such a success that the competition was forced to
come out with its imitators. Lucky Strike (American),
Chesterfield (Liggett & Myers), and, eventually, Old
Gold (Lorillard) were the major imitators. Cigarettes
did not become the major form of tobacco in the U.S. until
the mid-1920s when cigarettes for the first time outsold
moist snuff and chew. The three packs are of WW
II vintage (no foil). The Lucky Strike pack was
packed for overseas use on Navy vessels and the Old Gold
pack was given to military service personnel by the Red
packs illustrate some of the variety of classic major
brands as well as some mid-century innovations such as
king size (pioneered by Pall Mall) and filters (illustrated
here by Viceroy). Camel, Lucky Strike, Chesterfield
(including Army field ration pack), Old Gold (with field
ration pack), Pall Mall, Raleigh, Philip Morris, Viceroy.
was a woman's cigarette ("Mild as May") until
its makeover as a filter cigarette in the mid-1950s.
This pack was made in 1953 but its design dates from the
"Call for Philip Morris" was the hallmark of this
brand for decades. This pack, signed by Johnny, was
made in 1940.
competition in the 1930s boosted the fortunes of a number
of minor manufacturers. Wings, Paul Jones, Twenty
Grand, Marvels and Coupon were among the brands that prospered.
Philip Morris leveraged its success with brands such as
Paul Jones to become one of the big six makers, and Brown
& Williamson did the same with Wings. On display:
Coupon (1932), Paul Jones (1941), Twenty Grand (1942), Marvels
carton, Lucky Strike, 1955. Giving gifts of cigarettes,
to servicemen overseas or at holidays, was heavily promoted
through the 1940s and 50s.